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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ABC ( Automated Blood Collection )
The technology allowing blood centers  to replace traditional methods of manual preparation with more predicted, operated and productive, developed according to modern quality standards. ABC also allows to receive more transfusion preparations from each donor.

Autologous blood salvage ( ABS )
A technology of blood collecting lost by the patient during a surgery, with the subsequent return of this blood to the patient.

APD
Automatic peritoneal dialysis, dialysis solution stream management by the machine.

Apheresis
Automatic collection of large volume of one of the blood components from the donor or removing of a certain blood component from the patient’s blood while the other blood components return to the patient’s (donor) blood.

Artificial kidney
Dialysis filter. 

Autologous
A component or a product belonging to the same body.
D

Dialysis
Blood purification by artificial methods, this treatment is necessary for patients with acute and chronic renakl failure.

Dialysis Concentrate
Dialysis concentrate is an electrolyte solution that turns into a dialysis solution after dilution with water.  It can also be supplied as a powder that is diluted with water automatically by the dialysis machine.

Dialysis Machine/Monitor
It is an apparatus which monitors and controls blood and dialysis solution flows  through the artificial kidney during dialysis. Besides, the apparatus prepares dialysis solution from concentrates and water.

Dialyzer
It is a piece of equipment that actually filters the blood.  It is  a variety of membrane filter used for dialysis utilizing counter flow principle : blood is pumped from one side of the membrane and a dialysis solution from another.  

Diffusion
Diffusion is movement of a substance from the area with high concentration  to the area with low concentration (per concentration gradient ).

Disposables
Disposable objects.
E

ESRD ( End Stage Renal Disease )
It’s a terminal stage of kidney insufficiency, renal functioning failure leading to intoxication if a patient doesn't receive treatment by hemodialysis or a renal transplantation

Extracorporeal
Out of the patient’s body
F
Flat Sheet
It is an oksigenerator version with a lamellar membrane.
G

Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of kidney balls
Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is placement of modified genes into the heart vessel walls, causing their growth bypassing the blocked site. 

Glomerulus
Glomerulus is a very small ball of capillaries in nephron.
H
High Flux Membrane
High-permeable membrane is a membrane with higher capacity for liquid filtration.

Hollow Fiber
A membrane consists of a bundle of very thin  capillary-like tubes through which blood is pimped and the dialysate is pumped through the space surrounding the fibers.

Hemodiafiltration (HDF)
It is a method that  involves diffusion of solutes across semipermeable membrane to achieve extracorporal removal of waste products  from theblood.

Hemodialyzis (HD)
It is a method that utilizes counter current flow across semipermeable membrane where the dialysate is flowing in the opposite direction to blood flow in the extracorporeal circuit. Waste metabolism products move across the membrane from the blood to solution and are disposed of. An access liquid from the patient’s body (free water) moves across the membrane along a created pressure gradient due to hydrostatic pressure created by the machine that monitors the dialysis process and its safety.

Hemofiltration (HF)
It is a method that removes metabolism products from the patient’s body by movement of solutes across a semi-permeable membrane governed by convection. Ultrafiltration volume increases that volume of fluid lost by the patient which is necessary as per nephrologist’s calculations. The difference is compensated by sterile pyrogen-free infusion solution
K
Kidney
Kidneys. About 1 700 liters of blood pass daily through the kidneys of the person. Kidneys contain about 2 000 000 nephrons. Nephron is the smallest functional unit of a kidney. Each nephron can purify blood and produce urine.  In each nephron blood arrives to glomerulus that is a small ball from capillaries. Here the considerable part of blood liquid component leaves capillaries through their walls. This liquid contains water, slag, salt and a lot of nutrients. This so-called "primary urine" gathers in "Boumen's capsule", surrounding a ball. Then primary urine concentrates. The most part of water, salt and nutrients are soaked up back in blood. There is urea dissolved in a small amount of water which gathers in a pelvis and through an ureter comes into a bladder.
L

Leukoreduction
Reduction of undesirable impurity of leukocytes in the red cell mass or thrombocyte mass  weight received from the donor.

N

Nephron
The smallest functional unit of a kidney able to produce urine by itself.

O
On - Line Preparation
It is ultrafiltration of dialysis solution prepared by the machine. During the process the solution is purified from bacteria  and pyrogenetic factors , it turns out  to a sterile infusion solution
P

Pathogen Inactivation
Ii is a process of an inactivation of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens which can be in donor’s blood.

PD Cycler
It is a device that forwards streams of solution for a peritoneal dialysis (PD) into the patient and from the patient. Usually the procedure is carried out at night.

Peritoneal Dialysis (PD)
Unlike hemodialysis during peritoneal dialysis blood is cleared without its extraction from a human body. Clearing solution is entered into an abdomen of the patient. A peritoneum is used as a membrane. It is necessary to use sterile solutions in plastic bags, blood lines to get connected to the patient and in some cases an apparatus for inserting and removing liquid from the abdomen. At the most widespread form of peritoneal dialysis known as CAPD (Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis) the patient replaces the solution manually approximately once in 4 hours. At APD (Automated Peritoneal Dialysis), the procedure is carried out by means of the device, while the patient is a sleep.

Plasma
Plasma is a liquid part of blood transferring nutrients, salts, metabolism products such as slag and other substances.

Platelet Gel
Platelet gel is a gelled material made of platelets that induces clot formation.

Preoperative Apheresis
It is a process of specific blood components removal from patient’s blood before performing an operation.

R

Red Blood Cells ( Erithrocytes )
Red blood cells are small flexible disks, which main function is oxygen delivery from lungs to fabrics, are also called  erythrocytes.

S

Stem Cells
Stem cells are found in bone marrow and in small quantities in periferic blood. They are parent cells for all blood cells which develop later either into white cells, red cells or into blood plates.

Stem Cell Therapy
Stem cells are taken from blood and then inserted into a patient who thus gains a chance to generate new blood. Oncologic patients  might need stem cell infusion after being treated with cytostatic drugs and chemotherapy.

Synthetic Membrane
The membranes made of synthetic materials are modern alternative to cellulose membranes.

T

Therapeutic Apheresis
Damaged or sick blood cells or the polluted plasma are removed from the patient’s body and  replaced with donor or artificial components.

Transfusion Medicine
Transfusion medicine is an area of medicine which deals with collecting various blood components from healthy donors with their further transfusion to patients for treatment.
U-V

Ultrafiltration
Liquid movement through a membrane under the influence of pressure gradient.

Unica Bag
Trademark for a bag with peritoneal dialysis solution that makes it possible to change glucose concentration by opening its different partitions.

Volume Control
Control of liquid amount removed from the patient’s body during dialysis. The patient with kidneys in a state of renal failure accumulates about 1 liter of excess liquid per day.
W

White Blood cells (Leukocytes)
White blood cells (leukocytes) - the nuclear cells circulating in blood, are subdivided into several types. Their basic purpose is to protect an organism against infections, parasites, allergies etc.

Water Treatment
Water preparation for hemodialysis is aimed at decreasing microbiology and dissolved solids content to a safe level.